|Frontal Intermittent Rhythmic Delta Activity Is a Useful Diagnostic Tool of Neurotoxicity After CAR T-Cell Infusion. |
Auteur(s): Huby Sophie, Gelisse Philippe, Tudesq Jean‐jacques, Labauge Pierre, Duflos Claire, Duflos Claire, Cartron Guillaume, Gallerand Marc-Antoine, Platon Laura, Badiou Stéphanie, Lamure Sylvain, Menjot De Champfleur N., Ayrignac Xavier, Taieb Guillaume
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Background and objectives: Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies have dramatically improved the prognosis of patients with relapsed or refractory hematologic malignancies; however, cytokine release syndrome and immune effector cell-associated neurotoxicity syndrome (ICANS) occur in ∼100 and 50% of patients, respectively. This study aimed to determine whether EEG patterns may be considered as diagnostic tools for ICANS.Methods: Patients who received CAR T-cell therapy at Montpellier University Hospital between September 2020 and July 2021 were prospectively enrolled. Neurologic signs/symptoms and laboratory parameters were monitored daily for 14 days after CAR T-cell infusion. EEG and brain MRI were performed between day 6 and 8 after CAR T-cell infusion. EEG was performed again on the day of ICANS occurrence, if outside this time window. All collected data were compared between patients with and without ICANS.Results: Thirty-eight consecutive patients were enrolled (14 women; median age: 65 years, interquartile range: [55-74]). ICANS was observed in 17 of 38 patients (44%) after a median time of 6 days after CAR T-cell infusion (4-8). The median ICANS grade was 2 (1-3). Higher C-reactive protein peak (146 mg/L [86-256], p = 0.004) at day 4 (3-6), lower natremia (131 mmol/L [129-132], p = 0.005) at day 5 (3-6), and frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA, p < 0.001) on EEG between days 6 and 8 after infusion were correlated with ICANS occurrence. FIRDA was only observed in patients with ICANS (N = 15/17, sensitivity of 88%) and disappeared after ICANS resolution, usually after steroid therapy. Except for hyponatremia, no other toxic/metabolic marker was associated with FIRDA (p = 0.002). The plasma concentration of copeptin, a surrogate marker of antidiuretic hormone secretion, assessed at day 7 after infusion, was significantly higher in patients with (N = 8) than without (N = 6) ICANS (p = 0.043).Discussion: FIRDA is a reliable diagnostic tool for ICANS, with a sensitivity of 88% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Moreover, as this EEG pattern disappeared concomitantly with ICANS resolution, FIRDA could be used to monitor neurotoxicity. Finally, our study suggests a pathogenic pathway that starts with increased C-reactive protein, followed by hyponatremia and eventually ICANS and FIRDA. More studies are required to confirm our results.Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that FIRDA on spot EEG accurately distinguishes patients with ICANS compared with those without after CAR T-cell therapy for hematologic malignancy.