|Shear-banding fluid(s) under time-dependent shear flows. Part II: A test of the Moorcroft–Fielding criteria |
Auteur(s): Briole Alice, Casanellas Vilageliu L., Fardin Marc-Antoine, Py Charlotte, Cardoso Olivier, Browaeys Julien, Lerouge Sandra
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Complex systems often exhibit shear banding-the coexistence of two different states characterized by their internal structuring and local shear rates. For some of them, the heterogeneous flow corresponds to the final steady state response while for others, shear banding can only be transient, the banding structure healing back to homogeneous flow in the ultimate steady state after long-lived periods. In order to explain the diversity of observations, Moorcroft and Fielding have established general criteria for the onset of banding in time-dependent flows of complex systems, ranging from polymeric fluids to soft glassy materials [Moorcroft et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2013, 110, 086001]. The proposed criteria are based on the time evolution of the bulk rheological response function of the system to a given time-dependent flow protocol and are associated with a specific signature in the mechanical response. In this contribution, we test the validity of these criteria in the case of two common time-dependent flow protocols: a step stress and a shear startup. Two types of fluids are examined. On the one hand, a wormlike micelles system exhibiting steady shear banding is studied experimentally, using rheometry coupled with direct visualisations and particle image velocimetry. On the other hand, we analyse previous literature on yield stress fluids exhibiting transient shear banding. Under creep flow, for both types of fluids the onset of banding arises in a time window compatible with the Moorcroft-Fielding criterion. However, the mechanical signature, i.e. the shape of the bulk mechanical signal as a function of time is not the one expected within some of the specific models with which the general Moorcroft-Fielding criteria were tested numerically. Under shear startup, both types of fluids behave differently. The criterion holds for yield stress fluids, the onset of banding arising just after the stress overshoot, as expected. On the contrary, for wormlike micelles the window of instability is delayed, even if the overshoot clearly plays a crucial role in the nucleation of the shear-induced structures. Regardless of the flow protocol or the system, wall slip seems to go hand in hand with banding indicating that it is a key ingredient to take into account.