|Shallow and deep levels in carbon-doped hexagonal boron nitride crystals |
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We study shallow and deep levels in carbon-doped hexagonal boron nitride crystals precipitated from a molten metal solution in a high-temperature furnace. Reflectance and photoluminescence under deep ultraviolet excitation are complemented by spatially resolved experiments by means of a scanning confocal micro-photoluminescence setup operating in the ultraviolet. Isotopically controlled carbon doping does not induce any energy shift of the well-known deep-level emission at 4.1 eV. Our detailed characterization in a series of carbon-doped crystals reveals that the incorporation of carbon during the growth process results in a distinct class of shallow and deep levels in hexagonal boron nitride, calling into question the exact role of carbon in the growth of hexagonal boron nitride and its direct or indirect influence on the formation of the crystal defects.